Reducing the quantity of carbon dioxide (CO2) discharged into the atmosphere is achieved through Carbon Capture Storage (CCS) technologies. The goal of carbon capture and storage, or CCS, is to absorb carbon dioxide (CO2) before it is released into the environment. Then, what should be done with the CO2 that has been captured?

The vast majority of CCS plans in use today require subsurface CO2 injection. This creates a “closed loop” in which carbon is removed from the Earth and re-introduced as CO2 after being extracted as fossil fuels. This article will help you understand carbon capture storage and give you a solution to combat climate change.

What Is Carbon Capture and Storage?

Carbon capture and storage removes greenhouse gas emissions from gas fields, fossil fuel power plants, and energy-intensive businesses. This is achieved by injecting the captured greenhouse gases back into the ground. Though there are many applications for CCS, here, we will concentrate on the types of CCS connected to fossil fuel energy infrastructure.

Supporters of CCS claim that it may be applied to reduce the effects of businesses that produce a lot of pollutants, such as steel, cement, and chemicals industries. Yet, CCS can never be a “zero-emissions” option, especially when it’s related to polluting gas and coal operations.

Why Is CCS Necessary?

Two of the world’s leading energy and climate organisations, the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have highlighted the critical role that CCS will play in reaching net-zero emissions by 2050. Experts confirm that CCS will be vital for challenging steel and cement manufacturing industries.

There are currently no alternative workable options for eliminating CO2 that has already entered the atmosphere. In other words, we don’t have any time left to wait for reducing global CO2 emissions. It is becoming evident that CCS is necessary for any workable future course for climate action. Currently, there are more than 100 facilities in various sectors and at different phases of development. Although, much more work needs to be done.

How Does It Work?

CCS may work in different ways depending on the situation. However, all the steps and procedures are very important. Let’s learn about the three steps that are involved in carbon capture and storage.


When capturing CO2, one removes it from the environment and separates it from other gases. Major industrial facilities like cement and steel mills, chemical plants, and gas power plants produce different types of gases, some of which are harmful to the environment. Many established and efficient capture techniques are used, like Post-combustion, Pre-combustion, and Oxyfuel combustion. The methods that are used vary depending on the source of the emissions.


Once separated, the CO2 needs to be compressed for shipping. Increasing pressure is necessary to make CO2 behave like a liquid. Then, the team responsible needs to dehydrate and transfer the compressed CO2 to the transportation system. The most popular means of transportation for vast amounts of CO2 is via pipelines. CO2 transportation by ship is also an option in many parts of the world.


After being transported, the CO2 is injected into subterranean rock formations, frequently reaching a depth of one kilometre or more, where it is permanently and safely stored. These rock formations resemble subterranean reservoirs that have been home to gas and oil for millions of years. According to Ursula von Der Leyen, chairperson of the European Commission, around 300 million tons of CO2 have been securely and successfully injected underground till now. Thankfully, there is an abundance of storage accessible globally.

Where Are the Captured Carbon Stored in CCS?

Different potential locations are available for storing carbon, including depleted oil and gas reservoirs and saline aquifers. These locations must usually be 0.62 miles (1 km) or deeper below the surface. For example, the salty aquifer known as “Endurance” is 90 kilometres offshore in the southern North Sea. It is a storage site for the projected “Zero Carbon Humber” project in the United Kingdom.

Endurance, located around one mile (1.6 km) below the ocean floor, can store enormous volumes of CO2. Comparably, other sizable carbon sites exist in the US, like the Citronelle Project in Alabama. The depth of this saltwater injection site is approximately 1.8 miles (2.9 km).

Carbon Capture Storage: A Potential Solution with Benefits

CCS is one possible way to lessen greenhouse gas emissions and slow climate change. Like any other technology, it does have advantages and disadvantages. Let’s examine some of this technology’s primary benefits.

Reduced Carbon Dioxide Emissions

CCS mainly benefits us by lowering carbon dioxide emissions. Climate change and global warming are primarily the result of these emissions. We may mitigate the effects of climate change by storing and absorbing carbon dioxide, which lowers the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

Energy Security

Additionally, CCS can strengthen our energy security. As we transition from fossil fuels, we must find new, dependable, reasonably priced sources. By offering a backup energy supply, CCS increases the dependability of renewable energy sources like wind and solar power. This contributes to the dependability of the renewable energy infrastructure.

Job Creation

The application of CCS technology may result in the development of jobs in the engineering, maintenance, and construction sectors. Both local communities and local economies may profit from this.

Some Barriers to Deploying CCS

As inspiring and useful as it sounds, deploying carbon capture and storage has some difficulties. A huge operation like this asks for some careful considerations, so let’s look at these issues.

Cost of Implementation

High cost is one of the biggest obstacles to adopting CCS technologies. While there is a wide range of cost estimates, the equipment and energy required for the capture and compression stages usually carry the highest prices. The capture of CO2 has the potential to reduce the efficiency of electricity and industrial units. The supplementary expenses and other factors may eventually make a CCS project unfeasible.

Transportation Challenges

Transporting CO2 also presents difficulties due to the high expense of collection technology. Compressing and chilling CO2 requires significant energy. Pipeline construction is costly due to the high pressure and low temperatures needed for maintenance. Also, the pipes made for this purpose must transport condensed, pressurised CO2.

Current oil and gas pipes are not suitable for this purpose. Water and other impurities in the CO2 stream can damage them greatly. It can also increase the risk of explosives and leaks as the pressurised fluid turns into a gas. Low temperatures have the potential to break pipes and equipment.

Storage Considerations

Most people agree that limited geologic storage availability won’t prevent widespread CCS deployment in the short to medium term. Yes, there is enough storage for everyone for the next century, especially in the US. The long-term capacity of storage sites to sequester carbon without much leakage has raised concerns among researchers.

An IPCC report 2018 states, “Current evaluation has identified several processes that alone or in combination can result in very long-term storage” (pg. 245). The subsurface injection of CO2 has the potential to induce some seismic activity as well.

Uncertain Public Support

More people realise that public support is essential to adopting CCS. In 2020, Resources for the Future, Stanford University, and ReconMR conducted a poll. They found that most Americans support federal government initiatives to limit air pollution from coal-fired power plants. However, more signs of public opinion about CCS must be clear. The location of fossil fuel pipelines is very controversial. This issue faces criticism from both sides, like those against using more fossil fuels and from nearby landowners affected by it.

Several factors likely influence public opinion about CCS:

  • Advantages of reducing CO2 emissions
  • The suggestion that using CCS extends the use of fossil fuels
  • Impact of pipelines on the environment.
  • Division of sensitive areas
  • Perceived and actual safety of CO2 transportation and storage
  • The degree to which other climate solutions are also used for CCS.

Still, more research is required to understand further the public’s perceptions and potential reactions to the widespread deployment of CCS.


Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a crucial component that you may find in the giant puzzle of preventing climate change. But, with all those benefits and drawbacks combined, it raises the question of how we can make the whole process more feasible. However, our goal should remain the same: reducing carbon emissions to save our mother Earth! 

In this eco-adventure, Clima is an excellent partner. We’re here to help and lead you on this green adventure like the sage sidekick. We can ensure a cleaner, greener future by working together to turn the tide.

By Clima